3. Short presentation of the Danube Delta

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3.1 Description

Location

The geographical position has the following coordinates:
     – 28º 10’ 50’’ longitude East (Cotul Pisicii)
     – 29º 42’ 45’’ longitude East (Sulina)
     – 45º 27’ latitude North (Chilia Branch, km 43)
     – 44º 20’ 40’’ latitude North (Midia Cape)
     – The 45º Parallel (marking the half-distance between Equator and the North Pole)
 

Universal value:
  • The only Delta in the world entirely declared as Biosphere Reserve
  • Establishment year: 1990
  • Surface 580 000 hectares – 2,5 % of Romania’s surface (22nd place among the deltas in the world and 3rd place in Europe, after Volga’s and Kuban’s Deltas)
  • One of the biggest wetlands in the world, habitat of the waterfowl
  • The biggest area of compact reed beds on the planet
  • A living museum of biodiversity, with 30 types of ecosystems
  • A natural genetic bank with inestimable value for the natural world heritage

 

General presentation

     At the end of a road, that surpasses 2.860 km, gathering rivers to an outstanding basin, with a surface that covers more than 80% of the European surface, Danube, the second largest river of the old continent builds at its intersection with the Black Sea, for more than 10.000 years, one of the most beautiful “delta” of Europe and even more, of the entire world, known as one of the most humid areas of the Planet. The stretches of water and lands that were formed here, gives great conditions of life for a large amount of species of plants and animals.
     From these, the reed makes one of the largest compact areas of the world, and the woods Latea and Caraorman represent the northern limit for two rare species of our country, oak trees, frequently seen in the southern area of the Balkan and Italian Peninsula. Along with the great number of aquatic and terrestrial plants we encounter colonies of pelicans and cormorants that are so proper to the Danube Delta, like the large number of other aquatic birds that live or come to hatch or hibernate. Also, we are also to notice the great number of species of fish with an ecological value and also with a higher economic.
     It can be said that with these remarkable diversity of the habitats and life forms that hosts into a relatively small area, Danube Delta represents a true museum of biodiversity, a layer of natural genes, which is invaluable for the universal natural heritage.

Clima

     Danube Delta has a continental-temperate climate with some pontic (marine) influence.
     The average annual air temperature has moderate values with a slow increase from West to east.
     The average number of hours sunshine is about 2,300-2,500 hours year (2,260 at Tulcea and 2,502 at Sfântu Gheorghe), and global solar radiation reaches 125- 135 kcal/cm2, one of the best in the country.

Flora and fauna

     One of the reasons why the Danube Delta became Biosphere Reserve is that, compared to other European or even World Deltas, it kept a higher biodiversity, meaning a higher number of species from different systems. More than that, the Danube Delta surprises by the high density of many species that are rare or missing in other European areas. All these exist despite the anthropic activity in the last decades and its effects on species and habitats.
     Since 1991, the flora and fauna in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is inventoried and this action is still under way. There are two major objectives: knowing the natural heritage in a biosphere reserve and pointing out species in need of protection and conservation.
     The mosaic of habitats developed in the DDBR is the most various in Romania, hosting a great variety of communities of plants and animals that counts:

  • 30 types of ecosystems
  • 7405 species, of which

                    BACTERIA 209
                    CHROMISTA 210
                    FUNGI 145
                    PLANTAE 2383
                    PROTOZOARE 429
                    ANIMALIA – 4029
                         1. Rotifera 479
                         2. Mollusca 84
                         3. Crustacea 223
                         4. Viermi 255
                         5.Arahnide 168
                         6. Diplopode 8
                         7.Insecte 2260
                         8.Chordata 552
                                   Pisces – 135
                                   Amphibia 10 – Caudata 2
                                                  Anura 8
                                   Reptilia 12 – Testudine 2
                                                  Sauria 5
                                                  Serpentes 5
                                   Aves 341
                                   Mammalia – 54
 
DDBR is a natural gene bank with inestimable value for the world’s natural heritage.
 

3.2 Useful Links

                              Wikipedia Description
                              Unesco Description
                              Atlas About the Danube Delta
                              Market Study On Prices/Hectares On Different Deltas Of The World
                              DanubeDelta Review
                              DanubeDelta Biosphere Reserve